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A tariff should be adaptable to changing circumstances. This requires the methodology to have a defined basis and provide for review and updating to a clearly stated timetable. Stakeholders should be consulted.

Global Energy Interconnection

While consensus is not always achievable, concerns should be addressed. FIT is generally understood as being based on the production costs of the technology in question, as in the original German model. The distinguishing feature of FITs is that they are technology specific, and often differentiated by project size and other technical characteristics such as additional bonus payable for projects that meet criteria for domestic content or other technical attributes seen as desirable.

Competitively determined tariffs are the best guarantee of economic efficiency. But that is not reasonable if the intent is to apply the ceilings to a tender for a project that will deliver benefits only 6—8 years from the tender date. It should include the cost of non recovery of energy resources, establishing grading and storage technology after that period of time from tender date. Create a multistakeholder monitoring team: Ensure that mechanisms are in place so that project activities can be monitored by a Multisectoral Monitoring Team MSMT composed of representatives from the local government units, host community, NGOs, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources DENR , and other concerned sectors in the area.

Set up an environmental guarantee fund: This is a financial arrangement negotiated between the proponent, the government, and the affected community. The amount is intended for rehabilitation and payment of damages due to the accidents from the operation of the project. These need to be shared equally with communities in recognition of their contribution to national security and national development for hosting the project. Protect prior and ancestral rights: Ancestral domain shall be fully recognized and protected by the project.

International Energy Journal

Protect forest patrimony: Ensure that the project will not disrupt forest patrimony. Countries like the Philippines and Indonesia have adopted emissions reduction targets under the Copenhagen Accord, and have adopted national policies and strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation. But for Japan, international pressure to reduce the GHGs emission and per capita energy consumption rate is mounting. One of the obstacles against geothermal energy development in Japan is the fact that most of the promising fields are located near or inside national parks or spa resorts.

Recently, the Ministry of Environment of Japan allowed the extraction of geothermal energy from national parks that could potentially be developed into a big renewable energy source and reduce its dependence on nuclear and other resources. Looking at the neighboring countries as stated in section above and being prone to natural disasters especially Fukushima nuclear disaster, , Japan should look for safe and potential energy source, particularly geothermal energy.

1. Introduction

So far, photovoltaic-cells-based solar energy has been the most dominant renewable energy source, mainly because it can be easily deployed on rooftops of existing buildings and houses and connected to grids in the form of distributed power supplies requiring much less effort and cost than that for geothermal energy. Since the government is the key stakeholder in energy business, this is certainly a great advocacy move for renewable energy to grow further in the Japanese market by following institutional strengthening factors:. Shorten the time taken for environmental assessment in developing renewable energy sites.

Address and solve current problems like high costs for electricity generation, intermittent energy supplies, restriction of development locations, through feasible long-term and short-term policy measures. Looking for small-to-medium-scaled geothermal power aligned with technological advances such as low cost binary cycles utilizing existing hot springs and heat pumps utilizing temperatures differences just beneath the surface of ground, both of which do not require a huge risky investment such as drilling the new ground very deeply, do not take years for addressing the impact on surrounding nature and for exploration, and can be implemented without a huge distribution plant will be a good source as primary energy because they can continuously provide stable sustainable energy source throughout a year regardless of changes in weather and no ill-effect on the grid stability.

Finally, apart from the challenges, optimization of geothermal energy usage will lead to all win-win situation for all around the society by giving positive social impacts reducing poverty, enhancing equality, health, community safety , being environmentally benevolent no environmental pollution as well as biodiversity conservation and renewable, efficiently produced, country like Japan must have a big go to these projects. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers.

Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Basel I. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books.

Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Abstract Energy is one of the fundamental necessities for economic growth, increased social equity, and an environment that allows livelihoods to thrive.

Keywords Geothermal energy Energy potential Policies. Introduction Global population has been increasing exponentially and we are estimating that between the years and , the population will grow from 6. Energy scenarios 2. Current scenario in Japan Japan ranks fifth in the world for the amount of annual energy consumed following China, United States, Russia, and India , and third for fossil fuel consumption including oil and natural gas BP, Status of geothermal energy in Indonesia Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world.

Solution common for both countries 2. Energy mix policy Sustainable energy policies are likely to succeed if they also contribute toward other societal and economic development objectives in the future. Feed-in Tariff Should tariff ceilings be based on estimates of production costs, or on the basis of estimated benefits?

International Energy Development

Resettle dislocated communities, if necessary Protect prior and ancestral rights: Ancestral domain shall be fully recognized and protected by the project. More Print chapter. How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard. Available from:. Over 21, IntechOpen readers like this topic Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers Suggest a book topic Books open for submissions.

1. Overview of international energy markets

More statistics for editors and authors Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Which latest energy development will have a long-term impact on our future? What will it take to decarbonise our energy system? What is the outlook for energy in Asia with the ongoing global energy transition? When will the global gas market rebalance? Tellurian Inc. In light of the Paris Agreement, what is the outlook for nuclear energy, especially in Asia, and the opportunities and challenges to further deployment? Agneta Rising from WNA shares her views How are smart technologies, digitalisation, and cyber security concerns impacting the energy industry?

Professor Sangiovanni-Vincentelli shares more. Paul Simons shares more on this and how IEA is advancing energy efficiency efforts in the region. How is smart technology contributing to energy security and the deployment of renewables? The Wuppertal Institute and Fischedick follow a transformative scientific approach. Research is not only considered to gain a better understanding of the system behavior including socio-economic and socio-technical interactions , but to proactively support the implementation of transformation processes, with particular, but non-exclusive focus on transformation processes in cities.

Fischedick is intensively working in the context of sustainable urban infrastructures. In , he was appointed member of the expert panel for the European Green Capital.

Here's what you need to know about the warming planet, how it's affecting us, and what's at stake.

From the very beginning energy efficiency has been one of the main research fields of the Wuppertal Institute. Consequently, based on the energy service idea, energy efficiency potential analyses have been conducted and structures have been analyzed in order to stimulate an energy service market and to set incentives for energy service companies.

Research work has been done at national level, for the EU as well as for utilities. Currently, the Wuppertal Institutes is building up a knowledge platform at international level enabling an experience exchange and transfer of good practices e. Allan is also a Member of the Seoul International Energy Advisory Council advising the Seoul Metropolitan Government on its energy and climate change policies and strategies. The National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility is based at Griffith University studying how Australia can adapt to the impacts of climate change such as more frequent and severe droughts, floods and sea level rise.

During his time at Woking, Allan reduced CO2 emissions by He was one of the principal team members in the development of the original concepts and methods of demand-side management. Dilip Limaye has provided technical assistance and consulting services to over utilities, regulatory commissions and national and local governments. Amory B.

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Lovins USA , a consultant physicist and innovator in energy and its links with resources, security, development, and environment, has advised the energy and other industries for four decades as well as the U. Departments of Energy and Defense. A Harvard and Oxford dropout, former Oxford don, honorary U. His latest books include Natural Capitalism with P. Naval Postgraduate School. He is an advisor to the U. Chief of Naval Operations on unclassified matters and a member of the U. National Petroleum Council.

Energy and Civilization: a History

Alan K. His interests, as expressed by himself, include market failures in the end-use of energy, real-time display of regional electricity demand and supply, teaching concepts of energy use and efficiency. He has published extensively on energy efficiency, especially in the residential and commercial sectors.